​​​Media  Theory



1) How do these needs relate to the UGT model?

2) Is there a link between self-actualization and video games?

3) Advertising creates false hopes & needs (Frankfurt School). What are the effects of generating a feeling of unfulfilled aspiration among audiences? 


1) Find examples of Fanfiction & transmedia storytelling.

How far do the texts show user empowerment?

2) Do the new texts conform to or subvert the original?

3) Are there any commercial aspects to the new versions?

4) In what ways are the new versions postmodern?


An experiment where children were shown a doll being treated violently and were then observed treating the doll in a similar way.  Supposedly this showed a link between observed violence and audiences' imitative behaviour. 

In terms of media effects, the results are not conclusive. The children may simply have been behaving in a way which they thought they were expected to behave. They may also have just needed to 'let off steam'.  


Mrs Fisher's Media video on Clay Shirky.​   (Try to predict the answers before watching.)

  1. According to Clay Shirky, there is now no such thing as a [fragmented/active/passive] audience.

  2. Audiences now like to share and [distract/create/interact].

  3. T ……………… has changed our behaviour and expectations.

  4. This partly explains the decline of ………… media such as newspapers and magazines.

  5. Audiences now like to ……… ………….. to producers.

  6. There is a more equal power balance between …………. and …………….


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